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大华雅思
大华雅思
SAT写作的基本要求

一、避免使用俚语和口语
二、避免使用不完整或冗长的句式
三、正确使用标点符号
四、正确使用修饰语
五、正确使用代词
 
      一、避免使用俚语和口语
      尽量避免在正式的写作中使用俚语和口语,因为它们使用并不普遍,所以极易使读者误解作者要表达的意思。例如:
 
错误:She plays a wicked game of tennis.
正确:She excels in tennis.
 
错误:John has been doing a science for years.
正确:John has been a scientist for years.
 
错误:The blackened salmon’s been one of the restaurant’s most popular entrees.
正确:The blackened salmon has been one of the restaurant’s most popular entrees.
 
稍作思考,你就会选择正确的用法。注意要坚持使用标准用法,抛弃非正式场合用语以及表述不清晰的缩写等用法。
 
      二、避免使用不完整或冗长的句式
      不完整的句式没有独立的从句;而冗长的句式则有两个以上的从句,而这若干从句之间并没有恰当地衔接。这两种错误都是我们应该努力避免的,具体做法如下。
 
      不完整的句式
      正式写作中的每句话都必须有独立从句。所谓独立从句,就是包含主语、谓语,并且不以下述连词作为句子开头:
      After if than whenever although in order that though where as provided that unless whether because since until while before so that
 
错误:Global warming. This is what the scientists and journalists are worried about.
正确:Global warming is the cause of concern for scientists and journalists.
 
注意,以并列连词——and、but、or、nor和for作为单句的开头,则是可以接受的。例如:
正确:Most people would agree that indigent patients should receive wonderful health care. But every treatment has its price.
 
      冗长的句式
      在时间紧张的情况下,不少学生写出来的句子没有标点连接,或者只有逗号。例如:
Current insurance practices are unfair they discriminate against the people who need insurance most.
我们有三种修改方法:
1)标注句号:Current insurance practices are unfair. They discriminate against the people who need insurance most.
这样,一个独立的句子就变成几个独立的从句。
2)标注分号:Current insurance practices are unfair; they discriminate against the people who need insurance most.利用分号把具有独立意义的句式分开,但同时向

读者表明句子表示的含义之间存在一定联系。
3)利用连词:Current insurance practices are unfair in that they discriminate against the people who need insurance most.这也是最有效的修改方法,从句仍然是独

立的,同时也表明了从句之间的联系。
出现冗长句式还有一个原因,就是误用however、nevertheless、furthermore、likewise、therefore等副词。例如:
 
错误:Current insurance practices are discriminatory, furthermore they make insurance too expensive for the poor.
正确:Current insurance practices are discriminatory. Furthermore, they make insurance too expensive for the poor.
 
      三、 正确使用标点符号
      1.逗号
      请遵循以下4大规则:
1.用逗号分开系列成分。如果有2个以上相同成分,则应用逗号分开;例如:
My recipe for buttermilk biscuits contains flour, soda and buttermilk.
2. 使用逗号来分开插入从句和短语;例如:
Gordon, who is a writer by profession, bakes an excellent cheesecake.
3.在引导性分词或介词短语后使用逗号;例如:
After the banquet, Harold and Martha went dancing.
4.利用逗号来分开连词连接的独立从句。例如:
Susan’s old car has been belching blue smoke from the tailpipe for two weeks, but it has not broken down yet.
 
      2.分号
      请遵循以下2大规则:
1.使用分号而不是并列连词来连接两个含义紧密的独立从句;例如:
Whooping cranes are an endangered species; they are unlikely to survive if we continue to pollute.
2. therefore、nevertheless和moreover等词连接的独立从句可用分号隔开。例如:
The staff meeting has been postponed until next Thursday; therefore, I will be unable to get approval for my project until then.
 
      3.冒号
      请遵循以下3大规则:
1.在正式的写作中,冒号的作用仅在于表明其后是对前面所述内容的详细说明、定义、解释或过去发生事情的概述。冒号之前一般是独立从句,并且通常情况下有as follows、the

following、namely或like等提示短语。例如:
 
正确:Your instructions are as follows: read the passage carefully, answer the questions on the last page, and turn over your answer sheet.
 
2.动词和直接宾语间不要放冒号。例如:
错误:I want: a slice of pizza and a small green salad.
正确:This is what I want: A slice of pizza and a small green salad.
3.如果前后两句话有如上所述的紧密关系,即使没有上述表示这层关系的短语,也可使用冒号,并且在这种情况下,句号也可用。例如:
 
正确:We were aghast: The “charming country inn” that had been advertised in such glowing terms proved to be a leaking cabin full of mosquitoes.
 
      4.连字符号和破折号
      请遵循以下7大规则:
1.行末单词分开时使用连字符号。例如:
正确:In this incredible canvas, the artist used only monochromatic elements.
2.表示21-99这些数字和用作形容词的分数时,使用连字符号。
错误:A two thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.
正确:A two-thirds vote was necessary to carry the measure.
3.由前缀ex、all、self、semi或后缀elect构成的词语,前缀或后缀和主体之间应有连字符号。
错误:The president elect was invited to chair the meeting.
正确:The president-elect was invited to chair the meeting.
4.如果把复合形容词放在所修饰词语的前面,则该形容词各部分应由连字符号分开。
正确:The no-holds-barred argument continued into the night.
5.专有名词或形容词前添加前缀,两部分应由连字符号隔开。例如:
错误:His pro African sentiments were heartily applauded.
正确:His pro-African sentiments were heartily applauded.
6. 如果复合构词法构成的词语容易与其他词语混淆,或者导致元音字母相邻,则应用连字符号隔开。例如:
错误:Most buildings in the ghost town are recreations of the original structures.
正确:Most buildings in the ghost town are re-creations of the original structures.
错误:She took an antiinflammatory drug for her sports injury.
正确:She took an anti-inflammatory drug for her sports injury.
7. 用破折号表明思路的突然变化。
正确:To get a high score—and who doesn’t want to get a high score—you need to devote yourself to prolonged and concentrated study.
 
      5.撇号
      请遵循以下3大规则:
1. 表明动词缩写,但是在作文开始中应尽量避免缩写。
2. 表明名词所有格。
3.代词都另有单词表示其所有格,比较特殊的是中性词one,其所有格为one加上撇号和s。
 
      四、正确使用修饰语
      单词在句中的位置往往决定该单词与句中其他单词的关系,对修饰语而言尤其如此。修饰语和被修饰成分应在所有格和数上保持一致。如果修饰语和被修饰成分隔开太远,

则容易导致语意模糊,所以应尽量避免出现这种情况。例如:
错误:Cheung and Martha sat talking about the movie in the office.
正确:Cheung and Martha sat in the office talking about the movie.
 
      五、 正确使用代词
      使用代词的时候,应明确其所指称或代表的先行词。如果容易引起歧义,应明确写明先行词,不用担心重复。例如:
 
错误:The teacher told the student he was lazy.
正确:The student was lazy, and the teacher told him so.
 
避免用this、that、it或which来指代整个短语或句子,即使这些代词与其指代的先行词很近,你可以用这些词再加上一个名词来指代。例如:
 
错误:The salesman spoke loudly, swayed back and forth, and tapped the table nervously, which made his customers extremely nervous.
正确:The salesman spoke loudly, swayed back and forth, and tapped the table nervously, mannerisms which made his customers extremely nervous.
 
除非指代天气,否则句子开头不要用it指代。
错误:It is difficult to distinguish between the scent of roses and that of tulips.
正确:T o distinguish between the scent of roses and that of tulips is difficult.
 
少数不定代词(some、all、most、any、none)既可以指代单数名词,也可以指代复数名词。当这些代词做主语时,必须明白其先行词是单数还是复数。
错误:His superiors have been following his progress. Some are more impressed than others. None are overwhelmed.
记住:以-body、-one、和-thing结尾的代词在数上始终是单数含义;both、few、many、several等代词在数上始终是复数含义。
 
      相信大家在掌握上述基本写作原则的基础上一定能够写出规范漂亮的SAT作文,实现心中的理想!

大华雅思